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The pathway described in k cl in this report achieves this objective with no offsets from outside the energy sector, and with low reliance k cl negative emissions technologies. It is designed to maximise technical feasibility, cost-effectiveness and social acceptance while ensuring continued economic growth and secure energy supplies. The k cl provides a global view, but countries do not start in the same place or finish at the same time: advanced economies have to reach net zero before emerging markets and developing economies, and assist others in k cl there.

We also recognise that the route mapped out here is a path, not necessarily the path, and so we examine some key uncertainties, notably concerning the roles played co bioenergy, carbon capture and behavioural changes. Getting to net zero will involve countless decisions k cl people across the world, but our primary aim is to inform the decisions made by policy makers, who have the greatest scope to move the world closer to its climate goals.

The path to net-zero emissions is narrow: staying on it ck immediate and massive deployment of all available clean and efficient energy technologies. Ever-cheaper renewable energy technologies give electricity the k cl in the race to zero. Our pathway calls for scaling up solar and wind rapidly this decade, reaching k cl additions of 630 gigawatts (GW) of solar photovoltaics (PV) and k cl GW of wind j 2030, four-times the record levels set in 2020.

Hydropower and nuclear, the two largest sources of low-carbon electricity today, provide an essential foundation for transitions. As the electricity sector kk cleaner, electrification emerges fl a crucial economy-wide tool for reducing emissions. All the technologies needed to achieve the necessary deep cuts in global emissions by 2030 already exist, and the k cl that can drive their deployment are already proven.

K cl the world continues to grapple with anal about impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic, it is essential that the resulting wave of investment and spending to support economic recovery is aligned with the net zero pathway.

Policies should be strengthened to speed the deployment of clean and efficient energy technologies. Mandates and standards are vital to drive consumer spending and industry investment into the most efficient technologies. Targets and competitive auctions can enable wind and solar to k cl the electricity sector transition.

Fossil fuel subsidy phase-outs, carbon pricing and other market reforms can ensure appropriate price signals. Policies should limit or provide disincentives for the use of certain fuels and technologies, such as unabated coal-fired power stations, gas boilers and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. Governments must lead the planning and incentivising of the massive infrastructure investment, including in smart transmission and distribution grids.

Reaching net zero by 2050 requires further rapid deployment of available technologies as well as widespread use of technologies that are not on k cl market yet. Major innovation efforts must occur over this decade in order to bring these new technologies to market in time. Most of the global reductions in CO2 emissions through 2030 in our pathway come from technologies readily available today.

But in 2050, almost half the reductions come from technologies that are currently at the demonstration or prototype phase. In heavy industry and long-distance transport, the share of emissions reductions from technologies that are still under development today is even higher.

The biggest innovation opportunities concern advanced batteries, hydrogen electrolysers, and direct air capture k cl o. Together, these three technology areas make vital contributions the reductions in CO2 emissions between 2030 and 2050 in our pathway.

This k cl new pipelines to cll captured CO2 k cl and systems to move hydrogen around and between ports and industrial zones. Around USD 90 billion of j money needs to be mobilised globally as soon as possible to complete a portfolio of demonstration projects before 2030. Currently, only roughly USD 25 billion is budgeted for that period. Developing and deploying these technologies would create heard of experiments new industries, as well as commercial and employment opportunities.

K cl transition of the scale and speed described by the net zero pathway cannot be achieved without sustained support and participation from citizens. Providing electricity to around 785 million people that have no access and clean cooking solutions to 2.

Emissions reductions k cl artificial intelligence article go hand-in-hand with efforts to ensure energy access for co by 2030. Some of the changes brought by the clean energy transformation may be challenging to implement, so decisions must be transparent, just and cost-effective. Governments need to ensure that clean energy transitions are people-centred and inclusive.

Ensuring the affordability of energy for households demands close attention: k cl tools that can direct support to the poorest k cl tax credits, loans and c, subsidies. Energy transitions have to take k cl of the social and economic impacts k cl individuals and communities, and treat people as active participants.

The transition to net zero brings substantial new opportunities for employment, with 14 million jobs created by 2030 in our pathway voglibose to new activities and investment in clean energy. Spending on more efficient appliances, electric and fuel cell vehicles, and building retrofits and energy-efficient construction would require a further 16 million workers.

But these opportunities are often in different locations, skill sets and sectors than the jobs that will be lost as fossil fuels decline. In our pathway, k cl 5 million jobs are lost. Most of those jobs k cl located close to fossil fuel resources, and many are well paid, meaning structural changes can cause shocks for communities k cl impacts that persist over time.

This requires careful policy attention to address the employment losses. It will be vital to minimise hardships associated with these disruptions, such as by retraining workers, locating new clean energy facilities in heavily affected areas wherever possible, and providing regional aid. More efficient use of energy, resource efficiency and behavioural changes combine to offset increases in demand for energy services as the world economy grows and access to energy is extended to all.

Instead of fossil fuels, the energy sector is based largely on renewable energy. Two-thirds of total energy supply in 2050 is from wind, solar, bioenergy, geothermal and hydro energy.

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