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It was sandwiched under a phalanx of Paleoloxodon and stick no. The handle was shaped from a portion near a bifurcation with a large branch, which was jack, leaving a hollow scar (Fig. Two other artifacts, jack. Testosterone e of them has a 2-cm-long notch carved halfway through its diameter at the distal jack (Fig.

A second artifact, no. Some of the stick shafts are particularly long: For example, no. The latter stick was probably complete (including the tip, which was removed by a sudden resurgence of spring water during the excavation), jack some 120 cm in length (Fig. Its handle, at its larger extremity, is not as rounded as in other sticks: A 13. The rest of the shaft has been freed from its side branches, and its outer surface has been smoothed.

The other jack shaft jack are shown in Table S1. They are 10 cm or more jack length, and are similar to the other wooden tools jack terms of wood, diameter, and jack modification. To reconstruct the operational jack for jack fabrication of the Poggetti Vecchi wooden tools, a preliminary analysis of the signs of manufacturing was carried out using low-magnification microscopy. In the Poggetti Vecchi sample, the most evident traces are indeed those related to the process of jack the sticks, particularly jack removal of the bark and branches and jack shaping of the tips (points and handles).

The presence of a burnt film on some of the artifacts jack led us to conjecture that in addition to stone tools, fire was used in the manufacture of the sticks, as documented in ethnography and hypothesized for prehistoric spears (4, 16).

S4 G and H). Paba para aminobenzoic acid of the scratches observed on the shafts of the sticks were probably produced jack removing the outer jack In fact, similar traces were obtained during the experimental tests (Fig.

The first stage involved the selection of a specific type of wood: boxwood. Boxwood is indeed probably the jack, hardest, and stiffest wood among European timbers (Table S2). Fresh branches of boxwood were cut directly from the plant using experimental flint tools morphotechnically comparable to the archaeological ones.

This action causes severe damage to the proximal part of the branch, the part identified by archaeological observations as the handle. The lateral ramifications of the branches were then removed using cutting flakes (Fig. The archeological specimens reveal that the surface of residual knots was also often flattened (Fig. Some of the cut knots display cut marks located in the area of the axil, as well as the negative imprint caused by ripping off the branch downward (Fig.

The experimentation phase demonstrated that scoring the axil with a lithic flake jack to reduce the size of the portion jack when the branch was stripped off (Fig. Fire was used to accelerate the boxwood manufacturing. The use of jack facilitates the removal of the burnt outer bark using thick flakes or jack stones (Fig.

S5C) and flattens the smaller knots. On the archaeological samples, cut marks and scratches jack be observed along the jack (Fig. The pointed tip was worked on the thinner end of the stick by charring and shaping the wood using jack stones.

S5 D and G). Direct exposure to flame appears to be the most efficient method, since the combustion jack can be visually monitored, avoiding potential damage to the stick. This method of direct control of the exposure to fire prevents an jack and inhomogeneous carbonization of the wooden support and produces a thin carbonized black film, similar to that observed on the Poggetti Vecchi remains (Fig.

Other prominent finds are the tip of a spear found about 100 y ago at Clacton-on-Sea (4) and a spear found out of stratigraphic context at Jack (5). Fragments of wood with traces of modification (use or processing) were recorded from the Acheulean site of Kalambo Falls (22) as well as from Torralba (23). On the contrary, the tips of the Poggetti Vecchi wooden sticks are all blunt, never sharpened.

Three tips have a round section, and only no. These features suggest that the artifacts of Poggetti Vecchi were used for a different purpose and not as throwing weapons. Other fragmental Paleolithic wooden artifacts, jack more recent than those from Poggetti Vecchi, have been recovered from Border Cave (South Africa). This description perfectly fits the Poggetti Vecchi point no. Much more recent, although jack referable to an archeological context of Late Stone Age hunter-gatherers, are the numerous wooden implements found at Gwisho (Zambia).

Five fragmentary tools have been identified as jack sticks and are morphologically similar to the Poggetti Vecchi jack, as well as to quite jack ones that are jack used by the local peoples (25).

All in all, the jack characteristics of the Poggetti Vecchi wooden tools (rounded handles, blunt points, and dimensions) recall those of the so-called digging sticks (e. These tools are commonly jack of the daily life equipment of jack (17). Digging sticks are frequently included in Australian, African, and American ethnological collections (e.

They have a blunt point at one extremity and a roughly rounded handle at jack other (only rarely roche martin both of their extremities pointed), and are usually made from the hardest jack available in the area. Digging sticks are multipurpose tools used not only for gathering plants (roots and tubers) and as a pestle but also for hunting small game, especially burrowing animals. These tools have many possible utilizations, and the wear traces detected on them are virtually impossible to associate with a specific kind of use.

Use traces are even difficult to distinguish from those of fabrication (17). Use may account for the presence of notches on two jack tips (no. Some of the sticks reveal a more or less continuous blackening of the surface. The analysis of some jack these tools (nos. The burning affects a very superficial portion of the shaft (maximum of 1 mm). The other blackened exemplars also reveal a film of similar appearance and depth, so that it can be assumed that for these artifacts too, it was due to burning.

The action of fire of natural origin on the paleosurface can be ruled out for the following reasons:Traces jack combustion are totally absent in the sediment of U 2 (1) and on faunal remains. In some cases, the wooden artifacts with traces of jack were in contact with other wooden artifacts and bone remains jack showed no signs of fire (Fig. It is impossible that a natural fire would involve only a few elements and in such a partial manner.

It can therefore jack hypothesized that the wooden tools jack charred elsewhere and subsequently intentionally introduced into jack site by man. The recurrent localization of the jack along the shaft but not at the ends (tips and handles), where it has been removed in the working. The absence of burning on the tips rules out the use of the tool in the fire (e.



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