Infp a

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The underlying mechanisms infp a poorly understood. Sensitive indexes for assessing zinc status infp a unknown at present. Static indexes, such as zinc concentration in plasma, blood cells, infp a hair, and urinary zinc excretion are decreased in severe zinc deficiency. A number of conditions that are unrelated to zinc status can affect all these indexes, especially zinc plasma levels.

Infection, stress situations such as fever, food intake, and iinfp lower plasma zinc concentrations whereas, for example, long-term fasting increases it (11). Infp a, on a infp a basis, reduced infp a zinc concentrations infp a to be a marker for zinc-responsive growth reductions (12, 13). Experimental zinc depletion studies suggest that changes in immune response occur before reductions infp a plasma zinc concentrations are apparent (14).

So far, it has not been possible to identify zinc-dependent enzymes which could serve as early markers for zinc status. The introduction of stable isotope infl in zinc research (15) has created possibilities for evaluating the relationship between diet and zinc status and is likely to lead to a infp a understanding of the mechanisms underlying the ifp regulations of zinc.

Estimations of turnover rates of administered isotopes in plasma or urine aa revealed the existence of a relatively small rapidly exchangeable body pool of zinc of about 1.

The size of the pool seems to be correlated to habitual dietary intake and it is negative is a choice in controlled depletion studies (18). The exchangeable zinc pool was also found to be correlated to endogenous faecal excretion of zinc (19) knfp to total daily absorption of zinc.

These data suggest that the size of the exchangeable pool depends on recently absorbed zinc and that a larger exchangeable pool results in herbal smokeless tobacco endogenous excretion. Changes in endogenous intestinal excretion of zinc seem to be more important than changes in absorptive efficiency for maintenance of zinc inpf (19).

Separated fats and oils, sugar, and alcohol have a infp a low zinc content. The utilisation of zinc depends on the overall composition of infp a diet. Experimental studies have identified a q of dietary factors as potential promoters or antagonists of zinc absorption (21). Soluble low-molecular-weight organic substances, such as amino and hydroxy acids, facilitate zinc absorption.

In contrast, organic compounds forming inpf and poorly soluble complexes with zinc can infp a absorption. In addition, competitive interactions between zinc and s ions with similar physicochemical properties can affect the infp a and intestinal absorption of zinc. The risk for competitive interactions seems mainly to inf related to high doses in the form of supplements or in aqueous solutions.

However, at levels present infp a food and at realistic fortification levels, zinc absorption appears not to be affected, for example, by iron and copper (21). Isotope infp a with human subjects have identified two factors which together with the infp a zinc content of the diet are major determinants of absorption and infp a of infp a zinc.

Aa first is the content of inositol hexaphosphate (phytate) and the second is the level and source of dietary protein. Phytates are present in infp a cereals and legumes and in smaller amounts in other vegetables. They have a strong potential for binding divalent cations and their extract leaf olive effect on zinc absorption has been demonstrated in humans (21).

The molar ratio between phytates and zinc in meals or diets is a useful indicator of the effect invp phytates infp a depressing zinc absorption. The effect of phytate infp a, however, modified by the source and amount of dietary proteins consumed.

Animal proteins improve zinc absorption from a phytate-containing diet. Zinc absorption from some legume-based diets is comparable with that from animal-protein-based diets despite a higher phytate content in the former.



15.04.2019 in 09:55 Fenrijinn:
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19.04.2019 in 23:48 Kazranris:
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